Range management referred to application of science on grazing area for obtaining maximum production of vegetation and livestock on regular basis. Range management is very similar to livestock farming. All these farming involved production of forage and feeding of livestock. Range management, however, differs from all other livestock farming in the sense that animals are allowed to go to the field and feed for themselves through open grazing and browsing of natural vegetation. Field ploughing and Sewing are not regular features of range management, although occasionally, these operations may have to be performed here and there. Range livestock visit the range area for a specific period according to a predetermined plan. The livestock is generally allowed to consume about half of available forage, the other half is left standing on the ground as un-grazed part of the plant of stubble as capital for future. This is very much like living capital which is retained and manage our annual increment and annual interest. Sufficient plant nutrients are thus covered and protected to enable the plant to sprout from rootstock during next growing season. Protection and conservation of these stubbles or bio capital is for perpetuation of range vegetation and vigorous growth year after year. This is particularly true in range area because desired vegetation cannot be regularly established year after year through artificial seedling over expensive areas. Proper range used intensify refers to the phenomena of Living a certain proportion generally half of the above ground Biomass of range vegetation as ungrazed on the ground. Range used intensity has a strong bearing on the capacity of Range vegetation to sprout in the coming spring or rainy season.
Since in spite of our best efforts, arrangement and precautions, range animals do not always behave in the open field the way we want and consequently some area may get over-used, other May remain under-use. Some plant species are particularly liked for grazing because of their palatability and nutrition whereas some other plant species may remain unattractive for animals. Natural regeneration of vegetation in some areas may suffer a serious set-back because of overgrazing and soil compaction. All efforts are therefore, directed to ensure uniform utilization (grazing) at proper season with proper range use intensity. All these efforts lead to successful sprouting and vigorous natural regeneration of range forage species.
Pending of grazing animals range livestock management is one of the oldest, most honorable and prosthetics profession. It is however, somewhat Complex because vegetation is managed indirectly through the agency of livestock. One can save lot of effort and money by allowing animal to go to the field by themselves and feed as much as they want and whatever and whichever they want but one also loses quite a bit as for a condition and quality of vegetation is concerned. Good forage species make gradually disappear and vegetation as a whole may slowly become patchy and poor.
The history of scientific range management is not very old in Pakistan. It all started in mid-fifties from maslakh near Quetta. Later, about a dozen range development project were initiated in various part of Sindh, Punjab, and kpk. Unfortunately most of these project was located in very low potential range sites. These projects ultimately failed after variable duration mostly because of bad weather conditions.
Maximum yield of range vegetation and livestock products on sustained basis are possible through balanced and timely input of various resources and through persistent efforts in the light of following broad guideline or principle of range management.